Citing Sources

Footnote and Bibliography Formats

  1. Whenever you quote, borrow an idea or any information from a source you must credit the source in a footnote or endnote.  Give a full citation of the author and reference the first time you refer to the source, and a short version with the author's name and the title thereafter.
  2. Always include the specific page number where the information can be found.
  3. Whenever you want to provide additional references or contribute commentary that is relevant to a subject, put these into a footnote.

    Example:

    Mozart's fugal writing occurs in several of his late symphonies.  See A. Peter Brown, “Eighteenth-Century Traditions and Mozart's "Jupiter" Symphony K.551,” The Journal of Musicology, 20 (2003):157-195.
  4. End your entry with a period.

 

Examples of citations:

N = the format for a footnote or endnote

B = the format for a bibliography

 

Books

N

     Nelly Maude Case, Worry Early: The Life of Brock McElheran (Canton, NY: ABCs, 2006), 12.  

B

Case, Nelly Maude. Worry Early: The Life of Brock McElheran. Canton, NY: ABCs, 2006.

N

     Christoph Wolff, Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), 72.

B

Wolff, Christoph. Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000.

 

Single chapter or article in a book with multiple authors. 

N

     Rebecca L. Gerber, “A Fifteenth-Century Pellegrina and Standley’s “Harmony of the Spheres” Mass,” “Uno gentile et subtile ingenio”: Studies in Renaissance Music in Honour of Bonnie Blackburn, Gioia Filocamo and M. Jennifer Bloxam eds. Centre d’Études Supérieures de la Renaissance Collection (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009), 12.

B

Gerber, Rebecca L.  “A Fifteenth-Century Pellegrina and Standley’s “Harmony of the Spheres” Mass.” “Uno
     gentile et subtile ingenio”: Studies in Renaissance Music in
Honour of Bonnie Blackburn. Gioia
     Filocamo and M. Jennifer Bloxam eds. Centre d’Études Supérieures de la Renaissance Collection.
     Turnhout: Brepols, 2009: 359-368.


Series

N

     Rebecca L. Gerber, Sacred Music at the Cathedral from Trent: Trent, Museo Provinciale d’Arte, Codex 1375 (olim 88),Monuments of Renaissance Music 12 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 948-72.

B

Gerber, Rebecca L.  Sacred Music at the Cathedral from Trent: Trent, Museo Provinciale d’Arte, Codex 1375
     (olim 88)
. Monuments of Renaissance Music 12. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.


E-Books

The same information is given as for a book, and then add: Retrieved from


N

     Paul F. Grendler, ed, “Timeline of the Renaissance,” Renaissance: An Encyclopedia for Students. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004) 1: xiii-xix. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library, Online Resources at SUNY Potsdam.

B

Grendler, Paul F. ed. Renaissance: An Encyclopedia for Students. 4 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
     2004. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library, Online Resources at SUNY Potsdam.


Later, revised or translated editions

N

     Karl Geiringer, Brahms: His life and work trans. by H. B. Weiner and Bernard Miall, 2nd edn., rev. and enl., with a new appendix of Brahms's letters (New York: Oxford University Press, 1947), 47.

B

Geiringer, Karl. Brahms: His life and work. Trans. by H. B. Weiner and Bernard Miall. 2nd edn., rev. and enl.,
      with a new appendix of Brahms's letters. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947.

 

Single-volume dictionaries:

N

     Don Michael Randel, ed., “Musica enchiriadis,” The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1986), 516.

B

Randel, Don Michael, ed. “Musica enchiriadis.” The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, Mass.:
     Belknap Press, 1986.


Multi-volume dictionaries and encyclopedias:

New Grove II: note that every entry gives the author for each article, usually at the beginning of the article in the online version and at the end in the printed edition. If you choose to cite an earlier Grove edition, you should compare the article with the more recent 2001 version for updated information.

N

     Cliff Eisen and Stanley Sadie, "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. S. Sadie and J. Tyrrell, 2nd. edn. (London: Macmillan, 2001) 17: 276.  

B

Cliff Eisen and Stanley Sadie, "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians,
     ed. S. Sadie and J. Tyrrell, 2nd. edn. (London: Macmillan, 2001), 17: 276.


From the online version of New Grove Online:

N

     Rebecca L Gerber, "Cornago, Johannes," in Grove Music OnlineOxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/06492 (accessed September 6, 2012).


B

Rebecca L Gerber. "Cornago, Johannes." In Grove Music OnlineOxford Music Online,
      http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/6492 (accessed September 6, 2012).

Journal articles
N

     Jess Tyre,“Music in Paris during the Franco-Prussian War and the Commune,”Journal of Musicology 22 (2005): 178.

B

Tyre, Jess. “Music in Paris during the Franco-Prussian War and the Commune,”Journal of Musicology 22 (2005):
     173-202.

 

Journal articles from online databases
Many databases give a “stable url,” such as:http://www.jstor.org/stable/1555210 or a digital object stabilizer (DOI).  If this information is given, then include it in place of a longer URL.  

N

     Andreas Giger, "Social control and the censorship of Giuseppe Verdi's operas in Rome (1844-1859)," Cambridge Opera Journal 11 (1999): 233. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/823611 at http://potsdam.libguides.com. Accessed 1 June 2009.

B

Giger, Andreas. "Social control and the censorship of Giuseppe Verdi's operas in Rome (1844-1859)."
     Cambridge Opera Journal 11 (1999): 233-65. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/823611
     at http://potsdam.libguides.com. Accessed 1 June 2009.


Web pages

Only choose web resources that are scholarly, provide an author, documentation, and have been reasonably updated.  Treat the source like a book or chapter within a book.  Always provide the url address and access date.

 

N

     English Hymns in the Commons, http://musicasacra.com/english-hymns-in-the-commons/, accessed 6 September 2012.

B

English Hymns in the Commons. http://musicasacra.com/english-hymns-in-the-commons/.
     Accessed 6 September 2012.


Online databases

N

     Image of Trent, Castello del Buonconsiglio, MS 1375 (olim 88), fol. 11v, Digital Image Archive of Medieval Music (DIAMM) (University of Oxford, 2008) (Accessed 1 June 2009).

B

Digital Image Archive of Medieval Music (DIAMM), University of Oxford, 2008. Accessed
     1 June 2009.


Dissertations
Cited as a book with the title in quotations, but with a reference to the degree and university in parentheses in place of the publisher:

     Robert M. Nosow, "The florid and equal-discantus motet styles of fifteenth-century Italy” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of North Carolina, 1992), 47.           

B

Nosow, Robert M. "The florid and equal-discantus motet styles of fifteenth-century Italy." Ph.D.
     diss., Univ. North Carolina, 1992.


Interviews
Give the name of the person who was interviewed first, followed by the name of the interviewer, the context or means of interviewing (in discussion or tape recorded) the place of the interview and the date.  If the interview has been published, treat it like a journal article.

 

McElheran, Brock.  Interviewed by Nelly Maude Case. Tape recorded in Potsdam, NY, July 9, 2002.

 

Correspondence (letters and memos):

Give the name of the person writing the letter followed by the person to whom it was written, the date (01 July 1944), the name of the collection where the document is held, the name of the library, institution and city.

 

Barbarolli, Sir John.  Letter to Brock McElheran, March 3, 1938. McElheran family archives, Potsdam, NY (used by permission).

 

Scores

N

     Robert Schumann, Scenes from Childhood, Op. 15, trans. and ed. by Gary Busch, FJH Classic Editions Series H1013 (Fort Lauderdale: FJH Music, 2004), 12-24.

B

Schumann, Robert.  Scenes from Childhood, Op. 15.  trans. and ed. by Gary Busch.FJHClassic Editions
     Series H1013.Fort Lauderdale: FJH Music, 2004.


N

     Johann Sebastian Bach, Matthäuspassion: Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke, ed. Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Institut, Göttingen, and Bach-Archiv, Leipzig, eds. Alfred Dürr and Max Schneider (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1972) Ser. II, Bd. 5, xii.

B

Bach, Johann Sebastian. Matthäuspassion. Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke, ed. Johann-
     Sebastian-Bach-Institut, Göttingen, and Bach-Archiv, Leipzig, eds. Alfred Dürr and Max Schneider.
     Ser. II, Bd. 5. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1972.

 

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