Abbreviations

Abbreviations commonly used when writing about music


     m. measure
     mm. measures 

Use "m." or "measure" when referring to one bar only, and "mm." when referring to a number of bars (i.e., mm. 59-62). Avoid beginning a sentence with this or any abbreviation. 

Examples:

     The horns enter at m. 32.
     The development section (mm. 20-30) is comparatively short.
     Measure 56 marks the entrance of the trombones. 
     ca. circa
     cm. centimeter
     no. number
     nos. numbers
     op. opus
     opp. opuses, opera
     rpt. reprint, reprinted, reprinted by


The following abbreviations should be used in notes, tables, or diagrams, but generally avoided in your narrative text. 

 

     ch. chapter

     ed. editor, edited by

     eds. editors

     edn. edition

     ex(s). example, examples

     facs. facsimile

     l., ll. line, lines

     rev. revision, revised, revised by

     sc. scene

     trans. translation, translated by

     vol (s). volume, volumes

 

Latin abbreviations (no spaces; note the comma)

     e.g., (exempli gratia; for example)

     i.e., (id est; that is)

 

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